BUILDING SERVICE-AWARE NETWORKS THE NEXT-GENERATION WAN/MAN PDF

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Aware Networks The Next Generation Wan Man [PDF] [EPUB] Building Service- Aware Networks is the insider's guide to the next-generation. 4 days ago Service Aware Networks The Next Generation Wan Man Free [PDF] [EPUB] A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which. Ebook Pdf Building Service Aware Networks The Next Generation Wan Man Muhammad. Afaq Khan contains important information and a detailed explanation.


Building Service-aware Networks The Next-generation Wan/man Pdf

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A typical system contains base station gateways, access points and wireless bridging relays. Other configurations are mesh systems where each access point acts as a relay also. When combined with renewable energy systems such as photovoltaic solar panels or wind systems they can be stand alone systems.

In a cellular network, each cell characteristically uses a different set of radio frequencies from all their immediate neighbouring cells to avoid any interference. When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area.

This enables a large number of portable transceivers e. Although originally intended for cell phones, with the development of smartphones , cellular telephone networks routinely carry data in addition to telephone conversations: Global System for Mobile Communications GSM : The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system, the base station system, and the operation and support system.

The cell phone connects to the base system station which then connects to the operation and support station; it then connects to the switching station where the call is transferred to where it needs to go. GSM is the most common standard and is used for a majority of cell phones. Sprint happened to be the first service to set up a PCS.

The newer GSM networks are replacing the older system. Global area network[ edit ] A global area network GAN is a network used for supporting mobile across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc.

Chapter 1: Introduction to WAN Architectures

The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off user communications from one local coverage area to the next. Uses[ edit ] Some examples of usage include cellular phones which are part of everyday wireless networks, allowing easy personal communications.

Another example, Intercontinental network systems, use radio satellites to communicate across the world. Emergency services such as the police utilize wireless networks to communicate effectively as well. Individuals and businesses use wireless networks to send and share data rapidly, whether it be in a small office building or across the world.

General[ edit ] In a general sense, wireless networks offer a vast variety of uses by both business and home users. Each wireless technology is defined by a standard that describes unique functions at both the Physical and the Data Link layers of the OSI model. These standards differ in their specified signaling methods, geographic ranges, and frequency usages, among other things. Such differences can make certain technologies better suited to home networks and others better suited to network larger organizations.

The use of this technology also gives room for expansions, such as from 2G to 3G and, 4G and 5G technologies, which stand for the fourth and fifth generation of cell phone mobile communications standards. As wireless networking has become commonplace, sophistication increases through configuration of network hardware and software, and greater capacity to send and receive larger amounts of data, faster, is achieved.

Now the wireless network has been running on LTE, which is a 4G mobile communication standard. The customer downloads end-to-end connectivity via EVC through the service provider network, and CFM identifies and notifies the service provider of failed connections. The enterprise customer needs to be aware only that IEEE This protocol addresses discovery, link monitoring, remote fault detection, and remote loopback.

CFM can then notify remote devices of the localized fault, as previously described. Availability of Ethernet OAM These features are targeted for availability in both the and platforms. See www.

Cisco therefore recommends that enterprise deployments use Layer 3 protocols today, and in the future provide routing around link failures and routing protocol features such as eigrp log-neighbor-changes and ospf log-adj-changes to alert the network management system of neighbor adjacency changes.

Ethernet OAM is not intended to be a substitution for a Layer 3 routing protocol. E-OAM is not a fast convergence technology. Rather, the enterprise customer should consider routing protocol enhancements such as OSPF fast hello packets as one option for enabling rapid convergence less than 1 second over a normally very reliable network. Changing the hello interval to 1 second with a hold time of seconds is also an option.

Note Decreasing the hello interval of a routing protocol increases main CPU consumption.

This is especially evident on a headend crypto aggregation router that terminates several hundred remote routing protocol neighbors. Cisco recommends that the network manager consult with an experienced networking professional familiar with large-scale aggregation or measure the impact of proposed changes in a testing environment before implementing on a production network.

Tier 1 ISPs currently offer QoS on existing serial access links T1, for example , and the natural progression of this service offering should extend to Ethernet Internet access. The core routers may have some form of QoS or may be under capacity with little or no congestion. The viability of supporting near toll quality VoIP in this configuration has been demonstrated for over three years by the author working as a full-time teleworker over residential broadband.

Because Internet access is purely an IP-routed network, Internet service providers rarely if ever provide any Layer 2 keepalive mechanism between the CE and user-facing PE equipment. These operate only on a single link basis and offer nothing similar to end-to-end "circuit" verification.

However, because IPsec is almost universally implemented in this WAN environment to provide authentication and data secrecy, end-to-end connection verification is controlled either by ISAKMP keepalive messages either periodic or on-demand Layer 3 keepalives running parallel to the crypto tunnel , and by the Layer 3 routing protocol hello packets that are encapsulated and traverse between the two crypto peers within the logical tunnel.

Although this topology does not offer identical functions to the OAM functions of Ethernet OAM in an EVPL deployment, it is not without a toolset to provide fault management and diagnosis of end-to-end connectivity issues. Processing traps by the enterprise NMS station and network logging of the logging buffer are two key elements in building both historical data as to the reliability or physical links or logical circuits. Crypto tunnels are logical circuits that traverse a Layer 3 network while EVPL is a Layer 2 provisioned service, but they share the common characteristic that the access port may be some form of Ethernet that provides no interface congestion feedback to the branch router.

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Multipoint Services This section defines various types of multipoint services and discusses their suitability for transporting real-time traffic. With these applications, broadcast and multicast packets need to be flooded to all sites, presenting a scalability concern with the associated packet replication on the service provider network edge devices.

The routed interface consists of a physical interface and sub-interfaces representing one or more individual point-to-point VCs.

Instead, it was required to configure static maps or dynamic mapping via inverse ARP to map the next-hop protocol address to the correct DLCI. By default, Frame Relay physical interfaces are multipoint interfaces. When sub-interface support was introduced, the best practice was to migrate to point-to-point sub-interfaces and to assign a Frame Relay sub-interface number that mirrors the DLCI value of the Frame Relay PVC assigned to that sub-interface. Fallacy of Latency Most discussions of peer-to-peer networking topology claim that one advantage of the technology is to "ensure minimal latency for peer-to-peer applications such as voice and video.

Few if any people experience difficulty with a conversation between a student in the rear of the hall and an instructor. In testing during pilot implementations of the teleworker deployment, Cisco documented that the largest factor contributing to latency in a hub-and-spoke IPsec VPN deployment between two phones at spoke locations was the speed of their respective broadband circuit.

The serialization delay of these relatively low-speed broadband connections is the major factor contributing to latency. Serialization delay of the access link is of little to no concern in comparison. Do not assume that voice quality will be demonstratively better with a multipoint WAN service. Some data applications, however, may actually be more influenced by WAN latency than voice.

Many data applications require a series of "lock step" transactions to access file or database retrievals. They exhibit TFTP-like behavior. TFTP is a UDP-based file transfer mechanism where bytes of data are sent, and before any additional packets are sent, the receiver must send an acknowledgement for each data packet.

This issue can be addressed by attempting to reduce the latency by a multipoint configuration. Partial Mesh A partial mesh topology is a means to address the desire to allow sites with high or constant packet flow between two or more branches or smaller campus locations to communicate directly while providing connectivity between branches that have casual or intermittent spoke-to-spoke flows.

The partial mesh is provisioned as a set of point-to-point links, with a portion of the branches having a link or links connecting two branches. Partial mesh topologies often are viewed in an unfavorable light because many equate them to the practice of two branches implementing a "back door" connection. The back door connection is one that generally is implemented without the advice and consent of the WAN architecture group and does not make use of a dynamic routing protocol, but rather static routes.

Building Service-Aware Networks: The Next-Generation WAN/MAN

Ad hoc networks can "self-heal", automatically re-routing around a node that has lost power. Various network layer protocols are needed to realize ad hoc mobile networks, such as Distance Sequenced Distance Vector routing, Associativity-Based Routing , Ad hoc on-demand Distance Vector routing , and Dynamic source routing. These networks can be used to connect branch offices of business or as a public Internet access system.

The wireless connections between access points are usually point to point microwave links using parabolic dishes on the 2. A typical system contains base station gateways, access points and wireless bridging relays. Other configurations are mesh systems where each access point acts as a relay also. When combined with renewable energy systems such as photovoltaic solar panels or wind systems they can be stand alone systems. In a cellular network, each cell characteristically uses a different set of radio frequencies from all their immediate neighbouring cells to avoid any interference.

When joined together these cells provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. This enables a large number of portable transceivers e. Although originally intended for cell phones, with the development of smartphones , cellular telephone networks routinely carry data in addition to telephone conversations: Global System for Mobile Communications GSM : The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system, the base station system, and the operation and support system.

The cell phone connects to the base system station which then connects to the operation and support station; it then connects to the switching station where the call is transferred to where it needs to go. GSM is the most common standard and is used for a majority of cell phones. Sprint happened to be the first service to set up a PCS. The newer GSM networks are replacing the older system.

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Global area network[ edit ] A global area network GAN is a network used for supporting mobile across an arbitrary number of wireless LANs, satellite coverage areas, etc. The key challenge in mobile communications is handing off user communications from one local coverage area to the next. Uses[ edit ] Some examples of usage include cellular phones which are part of everyday wireless networks, allowing easy personal communications. Another example, Intercontinental network systems, use radio satellites to communicate across the world.

Emergency services such as the police utilize wireless networks to communicate effectively as well. Individuals and businesses use wireless networks to send and share data rapidly, whether it be in a small office building or across the world.

General[ edit ] In a general sense, wireless networks offer a vast variety of uses by both business and home users. Each wireless technology is defined by a standard that describes unique functions at both the Physical and the Data Link layers of the OSI model. These standards differ in their specified signaling methods, geographic ranges, and frequency usages, among other things.Sites, in turn, are linked by the traditional wide area network WAN carrier.

Traffic from both hubs now has a QoS policy applied to a point-to-point sub-interface, rather than to a multipoint interface. Read more. It is termed "commingled" to distinguish it from the apportioned dual-tier topology. Types of wireless networks[ edit ] Wireless PAN[ edit ] Wireless personal area networks WPANs connect devices within a relatively small area, that is generally within a person's reach. The technology is high- speed, and is relatively expensive. Iacono, M.

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